Well completion is a process that takes place after a oil or gas well has been verified to be commercially viable. Well completion involves casing, temperature and pressure evaluation and equipment installation to allow gas or oil drilling. Completion therefore has to wait for formation testing after a design well depth has been established. The specific activities involved in well completion include; drill stem tests (DST), production casting, production tubing installation, production flow commencement and installation of beam pumping units.
Drill stem tests have to be conducted to determine production formation potential. The DST experts use appropriate tools lowered into the bottom of the drilling hole to establish the formation potential. Adjustments are made to the tool to establish if the pressure is sufficient for production. This process should be left to the professional crew as hazards such as getting stuck by the test tool in floor testing. Exposure to h2s and other gases as well as blowouts are other hazards that only professional crews know how to deal with.
Production tubing installation is the other process involved in well completion. Small diameter tubing is more preferred to the larger ones in mining. Using couplings, individual tubing is joined to form a tubing string. The tubing that is to be used in mining is made using power tongs. With the advancement in technology, tubing can be made in the form of a continuous coil.
The final step in well completion is the initial production flow. Brine or water is injected into the well to remove the drilling fluid. This should be enough to initiate the flowing of the well. In the event that the well fails to flow under such circumstances, unloading or high pressure gas injection might be necessary. Caution should be taken since blowouts might occur if the well pressures happen to be charged.